Application of 100G QSFP28 Interface Model For Data Centers
Application of 100G QSFP28 Interface Model For Data Centers

After years of development, 100G applications have formed a variety of technology types and alliances, whether it is the standardized ieee802.3bm or the 100G application model launched by SWDM, MSA and other organizations. There are many kinds of interfaces and application technologies supporting 100G, and each has its own characteristics. For the practical application of the data center, the distance between the connection points of most data centers does not exceed 500 meters. From a large number of 100G interface models, we have selected four types that are most likely to be used in data centers for further analysis for users who need to deploy 100G for reference. 1. 100GBase-SR4 100GBase-SR4 complies with the new standard ieee802.3bm issued in 2015. It uses 4 channels composed of 8-core multimode fiber for parallel transmission. Both multimode OM3 and OM4 optical fibers support 100G applications. The interface adopts 12 core MPO interface. The middle four core optical fiber does not need to be used. Each channel supports 25G. The transmission model is completely consistent with 100GBase-SR4 in ieee802.3ba. The optical transceiver adopts 100G QSFP28 SR4. This model can use conventional OM3 and OM4 multimode optical fibers to support 70m and 100m distances of 100G applications respectively. 2. 100GBase-SWDM4 SWDM (Short Wavelength Division Multiplexing) transmits four wavelength bands of optical signals over a single core of multimode fiber. The principle of WDM is similar to CWDM on single-mode, but SWDM is the first application of WDM technology on the short wavelength band of multimode fiber. It can be referred to the transmission principle model in the following figure:  The main transmission window of traditional OM3 and OM4 multimode fiber is defined at 850nm. If SWDM technology is adopted, four windows are required to transmit optical signals, and the four wavebands still use VCSEL vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with high cost performance. In order to improve the overall bandwidth, the bandwidth of the new generation multimode fiber WBMMF(Wideband Multimode Fiber) is increased. In WBMMF, the highest bandwidth performance is around 880nm band, and the highest bandwidth point is higher than that of traditional OM4 multimode fiber. The SWDM technology can also use OM4 optical fiber as the transmission medium, but the transmission distance should be reduced accordingly. Compared with the SR4 model, SWDM4 requires only 25% of the optical fiber.3. 100GBase-PSM4 100GBase-PSM4 adopts single-mode optical fiber parallel transmission mode. Each 100G model adopts 8-core single-mode optical fiber to form four independent channels. The interface adopts 12 core MPO interface, in which the middle 4-core optical fiber of MPO interface is not enabled, and each channel supports 25G. The optical fiber transmission model is similar to 100GBase-SR4. The biggest difference is that PSM4 adopts single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium and laser light source 1310 window. The optical transceiver also adopts QSFP28, and the connector adopts MTP / MPO single-mode APC. At present, 100GBase PSM4 has not been recognized by IEEE standardization organization, and is mainly promoted by PSM4 MSA alliance. 4. 100GBase-CWDM4  100GBase-CWDM4 is a 100G transmission model based on single-mode coarse wavelength division multiplexing(CWDM) technology. The fiber optic transceiver uses a single-mode laser light source with LC duplex interface, and supports four long wavelength bands of signal transmission on each core fiber, these four emission windows are 1271nm,1291nm,1311nm,1331nm, and each band transmits 25G. 100GBase-CWDM4 model is also used QSFP28 optical transceiver.Compare to traditional single-mode 10KM transceiver with high cost, the 2KM QSFP28 100G CWDM4 transceiver has a competitive price.   5. Summary  Different types of data centers determine different needs. Not all data center users currently have the need to deploy 100G, so what types of users need to deploy 100G networks the most? To answer this question, we can divide data centers into two major categories, IDC (Internet Data Center) and EDC (Enterprise Data Center). Relatively speaking, some IDC data centers have more urgency to deploy 100G backbone networks, such as the data centers of large interconnection companies or carriers or some scaled cloud computing data centers. In terms of current price, although the wiring cost of multi-mode 100G based on SR4 is relatively high, the overall price has certain advantages, especially the price of SR4 optical transceiver is significantly lower than that of other types. Meanwhile, the price of optical transceiver based on CWDM single-mode is significantly higher than that of the other three types. The overall price difference between PSM4 and SWDM is small. As the SWDM alliance participated by a small number of optical transceiver manufacturers, it is not a public technology at present, and the market price remains relatively high temporarily. However, from the perspective of technology and cost composition, there is still a large room for price decline of SWDM, and this product has a certain market potential in the future.

Optical Transceiver QSFP28 100G QSFP28 870 99 07/29/21
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What is Fiber Optical Transceiver?
What is Fiber Optical Transceiver?

1. Introduction of optical moduleAs an important part of fiber optic communication, optical module is an optoelectronic device that realizes the function of photoelectric conversion and electro-optical conversion. To be precise, optical module is the general name of several types of modules, including optical transmitting module transmitter, optical receiving module receiver, optical transceiver module transmitter and optical forwarding module transmitter. Generally, the optical module we call generally refers to the integrated optical transceiver module, namely, optical transceiver. ① Working principle of optical transceiver Optical transceiver works in the physical layer of OSI model and is one of the core devices in optical fiber communication system. It is mainly composed of optoelectronic devices (optical transmitter, optical receiver), functional circuit and optical (Electrical) interface. Components of an optical transceiver  Basic principle: the transmitting interface inputs an electrical signal with a certain code rate. After being processed by the internal driving chip, the driving semiconductor laser (LD) or light emitting diode (LED) emits a modulated optical signal with a corresponding rate. After being transmitted through the optical fiber, the receiving interface converts the optical signal from the optical detection diode into an electrical signal, After passing through the preamplifier, the electrical signal of the corresponding code rate is output.    ② Key parameters of optical transceiver The key technical indicators of the optical transceiver mainly include: transmitting optical power, receiving optical power, overload optical power, maximum receiving sensitivity and extinction ratio. A. Transmitting optical power: refers to the optical power output by the light source at the transmitting end of the optical module under normal working conditions, which can be understood as the intensity of light, and the unit is w or MW or DBM. Where w or MW is the linear unit and DBM is the logarithmic unit. In communication, we usually use DBM to represent optical power, and the optical power of 0dbm corresponds to 1MW.B. Receiving optical power: refers to the average optical power range that can be received by the receiving end component under the condition of a certain bit error rate (BER = 10-12). The upper limit value is the overload optical power, and the lower limit value is the maximum value of reception sensitivity.C. Overload optical power: also known as saturated optical power, it refers to the maximum input average optical power that can be received by the receiver component when a certain bit error rate (BER = 10-12) is maintained at a certain transmission rate (unit: DBM). It should be noted that the photocurrent saturation of the photodetector will occur under strong light irradiation. Therefore, strong light irradiation should be avoided as far as possible to prevent exceeding the saturated light power.D. Receiving sensitivity: refers to the minimum average input optical power that can be received by the receiving end component when a certain bit error rate (BER = 10-12) is maintained at a certain transmission rate (unit: DBM). Generally, the higher the rate, the worse the reception sensitivity, that is, the greater the minimum received optical power, and the higher the requirements for the receiving devices of the optical transceiver.E. Extinction ratio (EXT): it is one of the important parameters used to measure the quality of optical modules. It refers to the ratio of the optical power P1 (when the laser emits all "1" codes) to P0 (when the laser emits all "0" codes) under the condition of full modulation, and the unit is dB. It is not that the greater the extinction ratio, the better the quality of the optical module, but that the optical module with an extinction ratio can meet the IEEE 802.3 standard is the better.       ③ Example of optical transceiver information on the switch:  Cisco switch interface optical transceiver information: Huawei switch interface optical transceiver information:2. Classification and packaging(form-factor) of optical transceivers ① Transmission rate: The current common types of optical modules are as follows:400GE optical module200GE optical module100GE optical module40GE optical module25GE Optical Module10GE Optical ModuleGE Optical ModuleFE Optical Module ② Form-factors: The higher the transmission rate, the more complex the structure, resulting in form-factors. For example, SFP/eSFP, SFP+, SFP28, QSFP+, CXP, CFP, QSFP28, etc. l  SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) optical module: small pluggable SFP module supports LC fiber connector.l  SFP + (Small Form-factor Pluggable plus) optical module: refers to the SFP module with increased rate. Because of the increased rate, it is sensitive to EMI and smaller than the SFP module.l  XFP (10GB Small Form-factor Pluggable) optical module: "X" is the abbreviation of Roman numeral 10. All XFP modules are 10GE optical modules. The XFP optical module supports LC optical fiber connectors. Compared with SFP + optical module, XFP optical module is wider and longer in size.l  SFP28 (Small Form-factor Pluggable 28) optical module: the interface package size is the same as that of SFP +, and supports 25G SFP28 optical module and 10G SFP + optical module.l  QSFP+ (Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable) optical module: four channel small hot pluggable optical module. QSFP + optical module supports MPO optical fiber connector, which is larger than SFP + optical module. Fiber Mall 40G QSFP+ Optical Transceivers l  CXP (120 GB/s Extended Capability Form-factor Pluggable) optical module: it is a hot-pluggable high-density parallel optical module standard. It provides 12 channels in the transmit and receive (TX / Rx) directions. It is only applicable to short-range multimode links.l  CFP (CENTUM Form-factor pluggable) optical module: the size is defined as 144.75mm × 82mm × 13.6mm, which is a new optical module standard with high speed, hot-pluggable and supporting two applications of data communication and telecommunication transmission.l  QSFP28 (Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable 28) optical module: the interface package size is the same as QSFP+, and supports 100G QSFP28 optical module and 40G QSFP+ optical module. ③ Single-mode or muti-mode? The optical fiber is divided into single-mode optical fiber and multi-mode optical fiber. The single-mode optical module is used together with the single-mode optical fiber. The single-mode optical fiber has wide transmission frequency bandwidth and large transmission capacity, which is suitable for long-distance transmission; The multi-mode optical module is used together with multi-mode optical fiber, and multi-mode optical fiber has mode dispersion defect, and its transmission performance is worse than that of single-mode optical fiber, but the cost is low. Therefore, it is suitable for small capacity and short-distance transmission. ④ Wavelength The central wavelength refers to the waveband used for optical signal transmission. At present, there are three kinds of common central wavelengths: 850nm, 1310nm and 1550nm.850nm: mostly used for short distance transmission (≤ 2km)1310nm and 1550nm: mostly used for medium and long distance transmission (>2km) ⑤ Transmission distance According to the different transmission distance of optical module, it can be divided into:Short distance optical module: ≤ 2kmMedium distance optical module, 10 ~ 20kmLong distance optical module: ≥30km.The transmission distance of optical modules is limited mainly because of the loss and dispersion of optical signals during fiber transmission. ⑥ Photoelectric module The photoelectric module is usually called electric port module or RJ45 SFP module. Unlike the optical module, the electric port module does not carry out photoelectric conversion. Through the switching of the electric module, the two optical interfaces can be connected with a network cable.RJ45 Copper SFP Module  3. Development and evolution of optical transceiversIn the current physical architecture network of mainstream data centers, Spine-Leaf (Clos network architecture) architecture is commonly followed. Usually 10GE interface is used as the access side server docking, and 40GE interface is commonly used for the uplink on the Leaf side. In large data centers, it has been common to use 25G as the mainstream access and 100G uplink. In scenarios requiring high computation and high bandwidth, GPU servers have been using 100GE and even 200GE access. Data center switch interconnects are evolving to large-scale 400GE interconnects.The development of Ethernet has undergone rapid changes from 1Mbit/s, 10Mbit/s, 100Mbit/s (FE), 1Gbit/s (GE), 10Gbit/s (10GE) to 40Gbit/s (40GE), 100Gbit\s (100GE), and with the rapid development of big data, smart cities, mobile Internet, cloud computing, network traffic has shown exponential growth. The thirst for continuous growth of bandwidth will require higher bandwidth rates, and optical modules will develop rapidly.

Application of 100G QSFP28 Interface Model For Data Centers
Application of 100G QSFP28 Interface Model For Data Centers

After years of development, 100G applications have formed a variety of technology types and alliances, whether it is the standardized ieee802.3bm or the 100G application model launched by SWDM, MSA and other organizations. There are many kinds of interfaces and application technologies supporting 100G, and each has its own characteristics. For the practical application of the data center, the distance between the connection points of most data centers does not exceed 500 meters. From a large number of 100G interface models, we have selected four types that are most likely to be used in data centers for further analysis for users who need to deploy 100G for reference. 1. 100GBase-SR4 100GBase-SR4 complies with the new standard ieee802.3bm issued in 2015. It uses 4 channels composed of 8-core multimode fiber for parallel transmission. Both multimode OM3 and OM4 optical fibers support 100G applications. The interface adopts 12 core MPO interface. The middle four core optical fiber does not need to be used. Each channel supports 25G. The transmission model is completely consistent with 100GBase-SR4 in ieee802.3ba. The optical transceiver adopts 100G QSFP28 SR4. This model can use conventional OM3 and OM4 multimode optical fibers to support 70m and 100m distances of 100G applications respectively. 2. 100GBase-SWDM4 SWDM (Short Wavelength Division Multiplexing) transmits four wavelength bands of optical signals over a single core of multimode fiber. The principle of WDM is similar to CWDM on single-mode, but SWDM is the first application of WDM technology on the short wavelength band of multimode fiber. It can be referred to the transmission principle model in the following figure:  The main transmission window of traditional OM3 and OM4 multimode fiber is defined at 850nm. If SWDM technology is adopted, four windows are required to transmit optical signals, and the four wavebands still use VCSEL vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with high cost performance. In order to improve the overall bandwidth, the bandwidth of the new generation multimode fiber WBMMF(Wideband Multimode Fiber) is increased. In WBMMF, the highest bandwidth performance is around 880nm band, and the highest bandwidth point is higher than that of traditional OM4 multimode fiber. The SWDM technology can also use OM4 optical fiber as the transmission medium, but the transmission distance should be reduced accordingly. Compared with the SR4 model, SWDM4 requires only 25% of the optical fiber.3. 100GBase-PSM4 100GBase-PSM4 adopts single-mode optical fiber parallel transmission mode. Each 100G model adopts 8-core single-mode optical fiber to form four independent channels. The interface adopts 12 core MPO interface, in which the middle 4-core optical fiber of MPO interface is not enabled, and each channel supports 25G. The optical fiber transmission model is similar to 100GBase-SR4. The biggest difference is that PSM4 adopts single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium and laser light source 1310 window. The optical transceiver also adopts QSFP28, and the connector adopts MTP / MPO single-mode APC. At present, 100GBase PSM4 has not been recognized by IEEE standardization organization, and is mainly promoted by PSM4 MSA alliance. 4. 100GBase-CWDM4  100GBase-CWDM4 is a 100G transmission model based on single-mode coarse wavelength division multiplexing(CWDM) technology. The fiber optic transceiver uses a single-mode laser light source with LC duplex interface, and supports four long wavelength bands of signal transmission on each core fiber, these four emission windows are 1271nm,1291nm,1311nm,1331nm, and each band transmits 25G. 100GBase-CWDM4 model is also used QSFP28 optical transceiver.Compare to traditional single-mode 10KM transceiver with high cost, the 2KM QSFP28 100G CWDM4 transceiver has a competitive price.   5. Summary  Different types of data centers determine different needs. Not all data center users currently have the need to deploy 100G, so what types of users need to deploy 100G networks the most? To answer this question, we can divide data centers into two major categories, IDC (Internet Data Center) and EDC (Enterprise Data Center). Relatively speaking, some IDC data centers have more urgency to deploy 100G backbone networks, such as the data centers of large interconnection companies or carriers or some scaled cloud computing data centers. In terms of current price, although the wiring cost of multi-mode 100G based on SR4 is relatively high, the overall price has certain advantages, especially the price of SR4 optical transceiver is significantly lower than that of other types. Meanwhile, the price of optical transceiver based on CWDM single-mode is significantly higher than that of the other three types. The overall price difference between PSM4 and SWDM is small. As the SWDM alliance participated by a small number of optical transceiver manufacturers, it is not a public technology at present, and the market price remains relatively high temporarily. However, from the perspective of technology and cost composition, there is still a large room for price decline of SWDM, and this product has a certain market potential in the future.

6 Ways Choose Digital knife Cutting Machines
6 Ways Choose Digital knife Cutting Machines

In the machining process, cutting is the most common processing method. There are many different cutting methods, such as manual cutting, die-cutting, digital cutting, etc. Different cutting methods apply to different types of work. Manual cutting is flexible and convenient, but the cutting quality is disappointing, the error is enormous, and the productivity is low. Die-cutting offers a fast and inexpensive way to cut, allowing for high volume production. But as consumer demands increase, more refined finishes have become the new standard for fabricators, and digital cutting allows for more complex shapes to be cut and delicate cuts to be made.Digital knife Cutting Machines are designed for industrial digital conversion, with intelligent slicing, built-in weighing, and many other unique features. Manufacturers in selecting digital knife cutting machines to integrate various factors, if you are not a professional in the machinery industry, there is not much knowledge of machinery, even if you have collected a lot of information, it is difficult to make the right choice. When choosing equipment, you should compare the quality of the equipment as well as after-sales aspects. The essential components of the digital knife cutting machine.1. The body, which carries all the parts of the machine2. Sliding plate or slide can move numerically to achieve processing3. Sliding plate drive mechanism, including motors, couplings, screws, nuts slide plate, etc., through the form of movement from rotation to linear movement of the slide4. Control system, including motor drive, main control board, software, etc., is the core of the machine. According to the basic structure of the equipment, you can choose from the following aspects.   6 Ways Choose Digital knife Cutting Machines1.Bed structure2.Accessories3.Installation process4.Actual usage cost5.Multifunctionality6. Warranty terms Bed structureThe high-quality bed is an essential factor in ensuring that the cutting machine can run continuously and stably. If the bed quality is poor, work will shake, resulting in poor cutting accuracy, so be sure to choose a greater self-weight, reasonable structure of an all-welded bed. AccessoriesOnly the use of high-quality accessories equipment has the excellent quality, can ensure continuous and stable work. The more critical accessories include the electrodes, the drive method, and the working platform. The dual-motor drive and the dual-frame drive method can ensure the accuracy of the cutting machine for a long time. The vacuum adsorption platform should try to choose a high-power vacuum pump to ensure that the material is fixed firmly during the processing. Platform plane detection system can effectively extend the service life of the working platform and provide a good cutting effect. Other types of accessories should also choose the regular brand.  Installation processGood or bad installation technology is the core factor reflecting the production quality of a machine. Even if you choose high-quality accessories, you still can not produce high-quality products if the installation is not reasonable. A qualified installation should be scientific, clean, and tidy.The actual cost of useThis problem is a critical point. If the cutting machine is processing low yield, high energy consumption, and high scrap rate, it will significantly disadvantage your output. So whether it is to control your costs or improve product quality, choose the actual use of the low-cost cutting machine is very necessary. VersatilityVersatility determines the range of work that the cutting machine can perform, the types of materials that can be processed, etc. A fully functional cutting machine can make your investment more valuable. Warranty termsThis issue is a crucial point in the after-sales service, which determines the warranty coverage of the cutting machine and is an essential factor for you to save on maintenance costs. As an R&D and production company engaged in the machinery industry for many years, we always insist on producing high-quality machines. We hope we can help more factories to realize intelligent production. We will provide you with high-quality Digital knife Cutting Machines and share more knowledge about choosing the machine. If you need, welcome to contact us!

JOUAV brings many products to the World UAV Conference
JOUAV brings many products to the World UAV Conference

On May 21, the 2021 Fifth World UAV Conference and Shenzhen International UAV Exhibition will be held in Shenzhen as scheduled. JOUAV has exhibited many new products with many partners, including the hydrogen-powered vertical take-off and landing fixed-wing UAV CW-25H jointly launched with Doosan Innovation; 5G networked UAV jointly launched with China Mobile Cheng Research Institute; and The CW-15+ industrial camera solution jointly launched by Phase One China; the aerial survey software solution jointly launched by Wuhan Xuntu, etc.JOUAV also won a series of honors at the conference, such as the 2021 5th Global Drone Contribution Award, the 5th World Drone Conference JOUAV Design Award, the 5G Netlinked Drone Application Landing - Contribution Award, and the Police Equipment Technology Innovation Award.With the continuous development and progress of aviation technology and industry chain, the emerging aviation industry represented by drones has entered a new stage of development, and its intelligent, platform-oriented, and tool-oriented attributes have been further explored and strengthened. "The reduction of cost will further promote the popularization of industrial drones and empower various industries.In this exhibition, JOUAV first fully demonstrated the platform-based architecture model and is committed to providing users with a more high-quality experience and differentiated services to serve a broader range of application scenarios.Hydrogen-powered VTOL fixed-wing UAV CW-25HIn May this year, the company, together with Doosan Innovation, successfully delivered the world's practical hydrogen-powered vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing UAV, CW-25H, with a range of 330 minutes.After two years of intensive technical research, JOUAV completed the development of an integrated hydrogen fuel cell + UAV platform based on its rich technical accumulation in the field of vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing UAVs; Doosan Innovation successfully launched a new generation of lightweight, air-cooled DM15 fuel cell system based on its technical advantages in the field of fuel cells. The close cooperation between the two parties has enabled the hydrogen-powered vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing UAV to move from concept exploration and critical technology research to the stage of engineering and radicalization.5G Networked Drones In April, JOUAV, together with China Mobile (Chengdu) Industry Research Institute, released the JOUAV 5G Networked UAV solution. 5G Networked Drones is deeply integrated with the 5G Networked system. It can be applied in many fields such as water patrol, forest patrol, and grass protection, Border patrol and defense, coastal security, emergency disaster relief, police law enforcement, aerial security, digital city, traffic patrol, etc. CW-15 V2 + Industrial Camera Solution In March, JOUAV released the CW-15 V2 UAV, which can be as simple and easy to use as a consumer-grade product and can be used with partners for secondary development of loads and software.JOUAV CW-15 V2 UAV is equipped with a 100 million pixel Feisi camera, which can achieve better than 2CM resolution tilt photography and achieve "high efficiency and high accuracy. "It can realize multiple uses of one data, change the application of mapping and geographic information in various industries, and build a broad new application model.Cooperating with Wuhan RAMAP to exhibit aerial survey software solutionsOver the years, JOUAV and Wuhan RAMAP have continuously launched aerial survey system software. For example, in 2017, our two companies jointly established the 1:500 camera-free photogrammetry system, which saved many fieldworks for most photogrammetry users. It is highly praised within.Now, after three and a half years of hard work, combined with the latest photogrammetry development trends and trends at home and abroad, the two companies have jointly developed a new generation of realistic 3D system and 2D integrated system, providing a more efficient and scientific solution for the photogrammetry industry. One of the new generation of the realistic 3D system, from multiple images, after a series of efficient automated processing, to get high precision and high fidelity of the actual 3D model, processing, you can join the ground control points or air control (differential GPS) to get the product with geographic coordinates. After further optimization by GPU technology and intelligent cluster technology, the efficiency of the product has been dramatically improved, and the product effect, flat plane, and straight line, so that the realistic 3D to the natural direction to a higher level. The 2D integrated system, on the other hand, starts from the image of vertical photography, and after a series of efficient automated processing, gets high precision and high fidelity DSM and TDOM (accurate shot) ideas, including the functions of air three, image control free, DSM dense matching, proper shot correction, seam line finding, color leveling, and light leveling.In addition, the JOUAV UAV ground charge vehicle was also presented at the exhibition. The ground accusation vehicle can highly integrate the JOUAV UAV platform, mission payload, ground command system, highly integrated, fast response; reasonable layout, convenient operation; 100 km long dual link; durable and reliable, uninterrupted operation; multiple redundancy, safe operation, and other features. Platform strategy is the global dynamic optimization that JOUAV has been pursuing. JOUAV advocates and drives the "point, line, surface, and body" in the industrial UAV ecosystem to develop and connect extensively to form a network effect, thus accelerating the innovation of technology and products.JOUAV Chairman Ren Bin said that the new generation of industrial drones is safe, reliable, and empowering to all industries and "popularized" by the low cost of use. "Only in this way can drones become "industry-based tools" in the true sense of the word.